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dog

собакa
Hund
chien

Swadesh list no. 47
Doerfer list no. 99

65 entries found.

Language Citation Form Standardized Form
Afšār-e Nānakčī ị̄t ị̄t
Altay ийт iyt
Altay Tuvan ïʾt, öt ïˁt, öt
Azerbaijani it, köpǝk it, köpäk
Bashkir эт et
Chanto Uyghur it it
Chuvash йытӑ yïtă
Crimean Karaim ит, йит, köpek it, yit
Crimean Tatar köpek, it, baraq köpek, it, baraq
Crimean Tatar-Coastal Dialect köpek köpek
Crimean Tatar-Orta Dialect kopekʼ kopekʼ
Crimean Tatar-Steppe Dialect it it
Cuman itt it
Dåyï kučiy kučiy
Dolgan ыт ït
Fu-yü Gïrgïs it it
Georgian Urum it it
Halych Karaim ит, йит it, yit
Ili Salar i̥t it
Ili Turki it it
Iranian Azeri it, köpäk
Jungar Tuvan ït
Kalmak кȯчек kȯček
Kalpin Uyghur i̥ʃtʰ išt
Karachay-Balkar ит it
Karakalpak ийт iyt
Kazakh ит iyt
Khakas aday
Khalaj i˙t i˙t
Kondoma Shor ит it
Krymchak kopekʼ kopekʼ
Kumandy-Kizhi ит, игир it, igir
Kumyk ит it
Kuu-Kizhi ийт, ит iyt, it
Kyrgyz ит it
Lower Chulym ит it
Mishär Tatar it it
Mogholi kųčų̈k, kọ̇päk kųčų̈k, kọ̇päk
Mrass Shor адай aday
Nogay ийт iyt
Ös адай aday
Qashqa’i it, kőpäg it, kö̭päg
Sakha ыт ït
Salar i̥ʃtʰ, xite*, haba* išt, šitǝ, xaba
Siberian Tatar эт et
Sonqori ịt ịt
Soyot ыът ï̀t
Tashkent Uzbek kuchuv küču̇v
Tatar эт et
Telengit ийт iyt
Teleut ит it
Tobol-Irtysh Tatar эт et
Tòfa ыьт ï̀t
Tomsk Tatar ит it
Trakai Karaim ить itʼ
Tuba-Kizhi ийт iyt
Tuha ïʰt ïʰt
Turkish köpek köpek
Turkmen it, güjük it, güǰük
Tuvan ыт ït
Urum (Azovian) йит, кӧпек yit, köpek
Uyghur ئىت it
Uzbek it it
Western Yugur ïʂt ïṣt
Yurt Tatar кәшік käšik

Difficult to reconstruct, although there is clearly a shared etymology for most forms. There is some evidence that *ït is the original form, with *it coming later. The presence of an intervening fricative in Salar, some varieties of Uyghur, Western Yugur and others is likely a result of post-aspiration assimilating to the following consonant: *ï̆tïʰtïšt. This would indicate an original short vowel, which triggers this kind of aspiration. The presence of a glide in some Kipchak (e.g. Kazakh iyt), then is a problem, as such a glide would ordinarily have prevented aspiration. It is possible that the original form was *yït, with some languages dropping the initial /y/, others assimilating it to /i/, and others undergoing metathesis, but the widespread preservation of this sequence in yïl "year" makes this unlikely.

No apparent related forms in other language families.

No obvious origin for z-Turkic (Khakas, Mrass Shor, Ös) aday. Forms like köpek are found in Western Oghuz languages, but also in Mogholi, a Turki language spoken in Afghanistan. No obvious origin.



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