Northern Altay


  • Change of Old Turkic *d to /y/, e.g. Kuu-Kizhi aygïr 'stallion', Lower Chulym quyruq 'tail'.
  • Preservation of word-final and preconsonantal */G/, e.g. Kumandy-Kizhi tag 'mountain', Lower Chulym ayïɣ 'bear'.


  • This may be a wastebasket taxon. Lower Chulym and Kondoma seem to be related (although there is very little documentation of either), as do Kumandy-Kizhi and Kuu-Kizhi. However, it is as of yet unclear whether these two groupings are related. The above characteristics merely place these varieties as basal members of Common Turkic and are not especially unique.


Northern Altay
  • References

    Ceylan, Emine. 1995. “Aşağı Çulım, Kondom-Aşağı Tom Ağızları.” Çağdaş Türk Dili 94: 13-18.

    Tekin, Talat. 2005. “A New Classification of the Turkic languages.” In Makaleler III: Çağdaş Türk Dilleri, edited by Nurettin Demir and Emine Yılmaz, 405-420. Ankara: Grafiker.

    Northern Altay
    Spoken in:Russia; Tomsk and Kemerovo Oblasts, Altai Krai, Altai Republic