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  • Khakas is divided into four main dialects, many of which have prominent sub-dialects:
    • Sagay
      • Sagay
      • Beltir
      • Koibal
    • Xaas (a.k.a. Xaač, Kacha, Kachin)
    • Xyzyl
    • Shor
  • The literary dialect is based on the Sagay and Xaas dialects.
  • The Shor dialect is transitional to Mrass Shor, and shares many features with it.
  • Living Tongues considers Xyzyl to be a separate language. They report that it is severely endangered.

Writing System with Transcription

Аа (a)Бб (b)Вв (v)Гг (g)Ғғ (ɣ)Дд (d)Ее (e, ye)Ёё (yo)
Жж (ž)Зз (z)Ии (i)Йй (y)Іі (ĭ)*Кк (k)Лл (l)Мм (m)
Нн (n)Ңң (ŋ)Оо (o)Ӧӧ (ö)Пп (p)Рр (r)Сс (s)Тт (t)
Уу (u)Ӱӱ (ü)Фф (f)Хх (x)Цц (ts)Чч (č)Ӌӌ† (ǰ)Шш (š)
Щщ (šč)ЪъЫы (ï)ЬьЭэ (e)Юю (yu)Яя (ya)
Several letters, including those without transcriptions noted, are found only in Russian loanwords.
*The precise phonetic value of this symbol is unclear. It has been described as a fronted "ы" or as a short "и". It appears to be a reduced vowel that only occurs in roots.
†Not to be confused with Ҷҷ. The form with the left-facing descender is unique to Khakas.


Хакасский словарь онлайн. 2016.

Anderson, Gregory D. S. 1998. Xakas. München: Lincom Europa.

Anderson, Gregory D.S. 2000. “Language contact in south-central Siberia.” PhD Diss., University of Chicago.

Marti, Marc. n.d. Khakas-English Dictionary.

Waibel, Zinaida and Andreas Waibel. 2006. “Der Schor-Dialekt des Chakassischen: Chakassisch oder Schorisch?” In Marcel Erdal & Marina Nevskaya (eds.), Exploring the eastern frontiers of Turkic, 251–263.

Бутанаев В.Я. 2011. Русско-Хакасский словарь (около 15 тыс. слов) = Орыс-Хоорай сӧстігі (15 муң сӧске чағын). Астана: Полиграфия.

Кызласов, А.С., et al. (eds). Орыс-Хакас Сӧстік.

Субракова, О.В. ed. 2006. Хакасско-русский словарь / Хакас-орыс сӧстік. Новосибирск: Наука.

Чанков, Д.И., ed. 1961. Русско-хакасский словарь. Москва: Государственное Издательство Иностранных и Национальных Словарей.

Approximate location of Khakas speakers in Russia.
Approximate location of Khakas speakers in Russia.
Native name:Xakas tĭlĭ
Alternate names:Tadar
Spoken in:Russia, Khakassia and Krasnoyarsk Krai
Number of speakers:43,000
Writing system:Cyrillic
ISO 639-3 code:kjh
Last update:2023-04-14