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  • Khakas is divided into four main dialects, many of which have prominent sub-dialects:
    • Sagay
      • Sagay
      • Beltir
      • Koibal
    • Xaas (a.k.a. Xaač, Kacha, Kachin)
    • Xyzyl
    • Shor
  • The literary dialect is based on the Sagay and Xaas dialects.
  • The Shor dialect is transitional to Mrass Shor, and shares many features with it.
  • Living Tongues considers Xyzyl to be a separate language. They report that it is severely endangered.


Хакасский словарь онлайн. 2016.

Anderson, Gregory D. S. 1998. Xakas. München: Lincom Europa.

Anderson, Gregory D.S. 2000. “Language contact in south-central Siberia.” PhD Diss., University of Chicago.

Waibel, Zinaida and Andreas Waibel. 2006. “Der Schor-Dialekt des Chakassischen: Chakassisch oder Schorisch?” In Marcel Erdal & Marina Nevskaya (eds.), Exploring the eastern frontiers of Turkic, 251–263.

Кызласов, А.С., et al. (eds). Орыс-Хакас Сӧстік.

Субракова, О.В. ed. 2006. Хакасско-русский словарь / Хакас-орыс сӧстік. Новосибирск: Наука.

Approximate location of Khakas speakers in Russia.
Approximate location of Khakas speakers in Russia.
Native name:Xakas tĭlĭ
Alternate names:Tadar
Spoken in:Russia, Khakassia and Krasnoyarsk Krai
Number of speakers:43,000
Writing system:Cyrillic
ISO 639-3 code:kjh