Lower Chulym

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  • Lower Chulym is among the most poorly documented Turkic languages. It has traditionally been described as a dialect of a Chulym language, along with the Middle dialect, or Ös. Although Chulym has no official status, the Middle dialect served as the de facto standard for the two varieties. Middle and Lower Chulym are reported to be mutually unitelligible, and, based on traditional classificatory criteria, belong to separate branches of Turkic.
  • Dul'zon lists five dialects of Lower Chulym:
    Russian nameParishNative name
    ежинскийБаигульскаяyēži yon
    ячинскийЯчинскаяyatsi yon
    кюэрикКорюковскаяküärük yon
    чибинскийКызыльдееваčʼibï dʼon
    It is unclear where the čʼibï dialect is spoken, as I have been unable to locate Кызыльдеева. The locations on the map are from Dul'zon (1973).
  • According to researchers with the Altaic Society of Korea, the last speaker of Lower Chulym died in 2011 (Li 2017).


Ceylan, Emine. 1995. “Aşağı Çulım, Kondom-Aşağı Tom Ağızları.” Çağdaş Türk Dili 94: 13-18.

Lemskaya, Valeriya. 2016. "Chulym Turkic people and their dialect." In Endangered Turkic languages II A volume 2: case studies, edited by Süer Eker and Ülkü Çelik Şavk. Ankara: Hoca Ahmet Yesevi Uluslararası Türk-Kazak Üniversitesi.

Li Yong-Sŏng. 2011. "Report on the Fieldwork Studies of Endangered Turkic Languages." In Endangered Languages of the Caucasus and Beyond, 108-121. Leiden, Brill.

Pomorska, Marzanna. 2017. “„How do they make bread?” - A philological commentary to a Lower Chulym text recorded by A.P. Duĺzon.” In Essays in the history of languages and linguistics dedicated to Marek Stachowski on the occasion of his 60th birthday, edited by Michał Németh, Barbara Podolak, and Mateusz Urban, 1-10. Kraków: Księgarnia Akademicka.

Бирюкович, Р. М. 1984. Лексика Чулымско-тюркского языка: пособие к спецкурсу. Саратов: Издательство Саратовского университета.

Дульзон, А. П. 1973. “Диалекты и говоры тюрков чулыма.” Советская Тюркология №.2: 15-39.

Lower Chulym
Approximate location of Lower Chulym speakers speakers in Russia.
Approximate location of Lower Chulym speakers speakers in Russia.
Native name:Ös? Tadar? Iyus Kizhi?
Family:Northern Altay
Spoken in:Russia, Tomsk and Kemerovo Oblasts
Number of speakers:Extinct as of 2011
Last update:2021-09-16