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  • Lower Chulym has traditionally been considered a dialect of Chulym. It appears to be a separate language, and belongs to a different branch of Turkic.
  • Dul'zon lists two dialects of Ös: Tutal and Melet. The native names given are tutal čʼonu and pilet čʼonu. The two dialects exhibit the following sound correspondences:
    • ž ↔ z, e.g. kiži (T) ↔ kizi (M) 'person'
    • č ↔ š ↔ s, e.g. čäl (T) ↔ šäl (M) 'wind', quš (T) ↔ qus (M) 'bird'
    • VɣV ↔ V̄, e.g.
  • The Living Tongues institute mentions an 'Upper Chulym' dialect that shares features with Khakas and which may be extinct. This likely refers to the Melet dialect, as it does share certain sound correspondences with Khakas, e.g. Khakas kizi 'person', xus 'bird'.


Ceylan, Emine. 1995. “Orta Çulım, Mrass-Yukarı Tom Ağızları.” Çağdaş Türk Dili 88: 6-13.

ELAR. "Middle Chulym (Ös dili): a Turkic Language of Siberia." https://elar.soas.ac.uk/Collection/MPI76855

Lemskaya, Valeriya. 2016. "Chulym Turkic people and their dialect." In Endangered Turkic languages II A volume 2: case studies, edited by Süer Eker and Ülkü Çelik Şavk. Ankara: Hoca Ahmet Yesevi Uluslararası Türk-Kazak Üniversitesi.

Li Yong-Sŏng et al. 2008. A study of the Middle Chulym dialect of the Chulym language. Seoul: Seoul National University Press.

Living Tongues. 2017. "Ös (Chulym): The Ös documentation project." Accessed 12 June. http://livingtongues.org/os-chulym/.

Бирюкович, Р. М. 1984. Лексика Чулымско-тюркского языка: пособие к спецкурсу. Саратов: Издательство Саратовского университета.

Бирюкович, Р. М. 1997. “Чулымско-Тюрскский Язык.” In Языки Мира: Тюркские Языки, 491-497. Moskva: Москва: Изд-во Индрик.

Дульзон, А. П. 1973. “Диалекты и говоры тюрков чулыма.” Советская Тюркология №.2: 15-39.

Approximate location of Ös speakers in Russia.
Approximate location of Ös speakers in Russia.
Native name:Ȫs tili
Alternate names:Middle Chulym
Spoken in:Russia, Tomsk Oblast and Krasnoyarsk Krai
Number of speakers:fewer than 25
Writing system:Cyrillic
ISO 639-3 code:clw
Last update:2022-03-25